Tradition says that the first permanent settler of Iceland was a Norwegian Viking and Icelanders still basically speak the language of the Vikings. However, Iceland has been the recipient of many immigrants over the last decade, mostly from Eastern Europe and South East Asia. Rather than using family names, Icelanders use patronymic surnames which are last names based on the first name of the father.

The official language is Icelandic, a North Germanic language descended from Old Norse. Icelandic Sign Language was recognized as a minority language in 2011. English and Danish are both taught in school and are widely understood and spoekn. 

73.8% Church of Iceland, 11.7% other Christian denomination, 7.1% other and not specified, 5.6% unaffiliated, 1.5% non-Christian, 0.3% Icelandic Ethical Humanist Association.

Icelandic literature, especially sagas and eddas written during the Middle Ages, are very popular. The remote location of Iceland has contributed to it's isolation keeping the country's culture from external influence. Icelanders are very independent and self-sufficient and have a strong work ethic. 

Iceland cuisine was traditionally based on lamb or fish but other foods have become more popular recently. Whale meat is a traditional dish, although something more of a novelty these days. 

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